What migraine medications are available to me? (and how well do they work?)

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What migraine medications are available to me? (and how well do they work?)

Migraine medication in bottles

 The question of whether or not migraine medications work is a long-running debate. Most are expensive and few are very effective. It is estimated that around 12% of the population suffers from migraine headaches and many have 4 or more migraines a month. They tend to be more prevalent in women. Researchers estimate that around 18% of women , 6% of men, and 10% of children have migraines. 

Axon Optics interviewed Medical Director & Principal Investigator of Medvadis Research Corporation Egilius L.H. Spierings, M.D., Ph.D. to learn more about migraine medications. Also, a Clinical Professor of Neurology & Craniofacial Pain at Tufts University Schools of Medicine & Dental Medicine Dr. Spierings works with migraine patients and conducts clinical research on migraines. He is well acquainted with the struggles that migraineurs go through to find a migraine treatment that really works. “Good treatment is hard to find,” Dr. Spierings says. “I tell patients to educate themselves so that they know what’s out there.”

The Cost of Migraines and Migraine Medications

Research shows that migraines are expensive – and the migraine medications aren’t the only things that are costly.

People who have chronic migraines spend almost twice as much on their healthcare as non-migraineurs. They also use more than twice the amount of prescription medications and have six times as many medical services and diagnostic tests. The monthly average costs for healthcare for migraine sufferers versus those who do not have migraines is substantial:

  • Chronic migraine: $145 per month
  • Non-migraine: $89 per month

Prescriptions for migraines can be cost prohibitive for many patients. One study found that:

  • 64% of patients surveyed said they had avoided migraine medication because it was too expensive.
  • 62% of patients surveyed said that had asked their doctor if he or she could prescribe a medication that was less expensive.
  • 50% of patients surveyed said they had skipped a dose of their medication in order to make it last longer.
  • 49% of patients surveyed said they had taken less than the prescribed dose so that they could make their prescription last longer.

On a national scale, it is estimated that the cost of migraines is around $17 billion a year. This factors in medications, physician services, emergency room visits, diagnostic and laboratory services, hospitalization, and treatment for the migraine medication side effects. This does not even take into consideration the time lost from work and loss in productivity.

migraine medication and medical bill to show drugs are expensive
Photo by Nick Youngson – http://nyphotographic.com/

New medications are being developed every day for a variety of conditions and migraines are no exception. This guide will introduce you to the various migraine medications and remedies that are available as well as the best way to take your medicine so that you can better minimize your migraine pain or prevent migraine attacks.

Prescription Migraine Medications

There are two types of migraine medications: Abortive and preventative.

Abortive migraine medications are intended to stop an attack from happening while preventative migraine medications prevent attacks from ever starting. In addition to staying hydrated and avoiding triggers, these medications can make life somewhat easier for the migraineur. The problem is that many migraine medications are not effective or not effective enough to stop an attack completely. This is why there are two types. Together, they deliver the one-two punch that so many migraineurs need in order to get relief.

Abortive medications

Abortive medications are intended to stop the migraine attack. These types of medications may be over the counter or prescription. 

Triptans (serotonin receptor agonists) have been found to be very effective as abortive prescription migraine medications. Common drugs found in this category include zolmitriptan – brand name Zomig (available as a nasal spray) and sumatriptan – brand name Imitrex. However, there are many drugs on the market that fall into this category.

Your doctor may prescribe something different. Ergotamine (CafergotErgomar) is another medication that gets good patient reports, but like the others works better during the earlier stages of the attack. 

Opioids are sometimes used to manage migraine pain, but many doctors are moving away from this practice. One reason is because they simply are not as effective as other medications on the market, especially when they factor in the numerous side effects and high risk of addiction and abuse – which is the second very compelling reason. There is an opioid epidemic in the United States. These drugs have high rates of abuse and addiction.

Some of the most commonly abused opioids include:

  • Hydrocodone (Lortab, Vicodin, etc.)
  • Oxycodone (Percocet, OcyContin, etc.)
  • Codeine
  • Hydromorphone (Dilaudid, etc.)
  • Morphine (Kandian, MS Contin, etc.)
  • Fentanyl (Duragesic, etc.)
  • Meperidine (Demerol, etc.)

While these medications can be taken safely, they do carry a higher risk of addiction, abuse, and overdose. It is vital that you explicitly follow your doctor’s orders for taking the drug and contact him or her immediately if you experience any unusual effects or have any problems with it. 

Abortive medications should be taken at the earliest sign of the headache. Once the attack is full blown, there is little that can be done to stop it. A good rule of thumb is, the earlier in the attack, the easier it is to stop, reduce intensity, or shorten the duration.Woman with migraine, needs migraine medication“Triptans are very effective in stopping migraine headaches in their tracks,” Dr. Spierings says. “However, you have to know how to use them, which unfortunately many people, including physicians, don’t. One important issue is that they should be taken at the first sign of a migraine headache, which most patients do not do because they are not properly instructed by their physicians.”

Preventative medications

The job of preventative medications is to keep the migraines from occurring. These are always prescriptions and may be taken every day although doctor recommendations may vary and they may be taken at certain intervals. 

There are quite a few drugs that are prescribed to prevent migraines. The migraine type is often a significant determining factor in what the doctor will choose to give you.

Beta-blockers like propranolol are commonly prescribed. These types of drugs are also given to patients with high blood pressure because it lessens the strain on the heart by reducing the heart rate and blood pressure. Certain seizure medications like topiramate may as well.

Calcium channel blockers (verapamil) widen the blood vessels by relaxing them. Calcium cannot enter cells in the blood vessel walls and heart which lowers blood pressure. 

Antidepressants may be effective as well as histamine and antihistamine, but Botox (botulinum toxin) has been getting a lot of attention recently. Yes, that is the same toxin from the bacteria (clostridium botulinum) that causes the type of food poisoning known as botulism. You may be familiar with Botox as a way to remove wrinkles on the face, but many people have found it very useful for preventing migraines. It is administered via injections, but the amount is so small, there is very little risk of getting botulism. 

Some people who get migraines also suffer from depression. If you experience depression, it could be linked to your headaches so it is important to talk to your doctor. Depression can make you more sensitive to pain and less able to handle it emotionally. Both the depression and the migraine need to be treated, but they may even both benefit from the same medication. Talk to your doctor and tell him or her about your migraines and depression.

Side Effects of Migraine Medications

Just like a number of prescription medications, most migraine medications do have some side effects. They include:

  • Nausea and/or vomiting
  • Dizziness
  • Drowsiness
  • Diarrhea or constipation
  • Excessive thirst
  • Fuzzy, disoriented, or euphoric feeling
  • Difficulty thinking or focusing
  • Fatigue
  • Muscle weakness
  • Warm sensations
  • Chest pressure

Not all drugs will have the same side effects so you should talk to your doctor or pharmacist so you know what to expect. Not all drugs affect people the same way either, so even if two people take the same drug, one may experience side effects while the other may not notice any at all.

If the side effects are too troubling (such as nausea, constipation, or diarrhea), your doctor may prescribe medication for you that helps offset those side effects or you may need to change prescriptions entirely. The types and severity of side effects will vary from medication to medication as well as from person to person.

Very rarely does a person find success with the very first migraine medication that they try. For many drugs, the side effects will subside and may eventually disappear as your body adjusts to the medication. Other times, though, your body simply cannot tolerate the substance. It is often left to the patient to decide whether they want to ride it out for a few weeks to see if their body adjusts to the medication or if they want to try something else. There really is no right or wrong answer here; it is all about what you can handle.

Some people won’t wait to see if their bodies will adjust because the side effects from the medication affects their job or home duties, like parenting or caregiving. In these cases, it is in the best interest of the patient to move right on to another treatment option. If you experience side effects with your migraine medicine you should call your doctor. You may need to change your dosage or the medication itself. You can also report side effects of drugs:

  • In the U.S. – FDA – 1-800-FDA-1088 or at www.fda.gov/medwatch
  • In Canada – Health Canada – 1-800-234-2345

Man with severe migraine pain.There is no one medication that works for everyone, you may have to try several different types and dosages before finding the right one. It is a process that takes time and requires good communication on both the part of the patient and the doctor. Often the doctor will start with the medication that has the fewest side effects, but certain types of migraines respond to certain drugs so that is a factor as well. If you do choose to ride out the unpleasantness of side effects from a medication, there are some things you can do to get a little relief:

  • Talk to your doctor about any side effects that you are experiencing – even the embarrassing stuff. Bring a list of the other medications and supplements that you take as well because some medications don’t mix well with other supplements or medicines and that could be causing the problem.
  • If you experience nausea or stomach upset, try taking the medicine with food.
  • Alcohol may worsen the side effects for some medicine and make other non-effective. It can also be dangerous, even deadly when taken with certain drugs, like opioids. It may be best to avoid it.
  • You may find that certain foods help or exacerbate the side effects of migraine medications. Try some different things and see what works.
  • Ginger tea with honey can help settle an upset stomach. Shave some fresh ginger into a small pot and add some water. Bring to a boil, reduce heat and simmer for about 7 minutes. Use a small strainer, cheesecloth, or coffee filter to strain the tea, add honey and sip. If the taste bothers you, add a few slices of apple (gala, honeycrisp, ambrosia, or pink lady are good and sweet) or pear when you are simmering the tea.
  • Stay hydrated. Drink lots of water, plain water. This is good for your migraines and for your medication – plus it’s great for your body.
  • If you hear or read about a medication that doesn’t have as many side effects, talk to your doctor about it. It may be that you can switch and it will work well for you.
  • Try to schedule your doses at times that are quiet, where you don’t have many demands. This may be during your child’s scheduled nap time or mid-morning when you have a break at work.
  • Saltine crackers and ginger ale are an age old remedy for stomach upset that does work. You can also sip on some broth which can be very soothing as well.
  • Know what side effects could pose a risk to you. There are some medications that just aren’t worth it for certain people to take. For instance, dizziness can result in significant injury or even death. This is particularly true for older adults. If your medication is making you dizzy you need to talk to your doctor about changing it.
  • If your medication makes you drowsy, see if you can take it in the evening.
  • Some patients will cut a pill in half and split up the dose to lessen the side effects. You should never do this without first getting your doctor’s OK!
  • Always talk to your doctor before altering your dose in any way or stopping any medication.

If You can’t Afford Your Migraine Medication

Cost should never prevent a person from gaining access to the medication that they need. There are a number of programs that help people get prescriptions, including drug company patient assistance programs, discounted prescriptions at pharmacies, state and federal sponsored prescription programs, and more. Click here to access our comprehensive guide to prescription assistance programs and get the help you need.  How to talk to your doctor about migraines and migraine medication

Over the Counter

Most over the counter migraine medications are intended to stop an attack once it starts. Many people who opt for over the counter ways to manage their migraine typically mix in some natural remedies (especially for prevention) as well as lifestyle changes. The top drugs currently available without a prescription that are somewhat effective on migraine pain include:

  • NSAIDS (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory)
    • Ibuprofen – Motrin, Advil
    • Aspirin– St. Joseph, Bayer, Ecotrin, Buffrin
    • Naproxen – Aleve
  • Acetaminophen
    • Tylenol
  • Migraine Formulations
    • Advil Migraine
    • Excedrin Migraine

Most of these, except for the migraine formulations, are not specifically designed to treat migraine headaches. They work best when they are taken at the onset of an attack, as early as possible. They are generally considered to be ineffective for severe migraines. However, they usually have no side effects when taken occasionally. NSAIDs can cause stomach irritation and Acetaminophen has been linked to liver disease and pancreatitis. If your migraines are so bad that you find you are taking several a day, you should talk to your doctor about finding a treatment method that is more consistent and reliable.

Over-the-Counter Migraine Medications

Over-the-counter migraine medications are often more attractive because they don’t require a prescription and they are less expensive. This means that people with a low income who can’t afford medication, or a doctor’s visit, can still get this medicine to help them get through a migraine attack. It should be noted though that most of these medications are not effective for a severe migraine attack; they are most effective early in the attack before it is full-blown. 

Just as with migraine pharmaceuticals, different people respond to different medications. What works for one person may not work for another. There also may be some side effects. It is important to know what they are and be able to identify an allergic reaction or serious reaction to the drug. Your pharmacist can answer those questions for you. 

Another concern with over-the-counter migraine medications is rebound headaches, also known as medication overuse headaches. These headaches occur when you take too much of a medication like ibuprofen. Instead of easing your pain, it can actually make it worse.

While any pain medication can cause rebound headaches in people who have a headache disorder, NSAIDs tend to be some of the worse culprits. These types of pain relievers are not intended for everyday use. They are for occasional headaches so if you take them more than one or two times a week, you could find that you have more pain and your headaches are more frequent.Migraine research for better migraine medications

Looking Ahead at the Future of Migraine Medications and Treatments

Migraine research is sorely lacking, but there is some potential good news on the horizon.

A group of doctors is exploring a new class of drugs that could stop a migraine before it starts. The product could be available as early as late 2017, but most estimates put it sometime in 2018. At this point, though, the drug would be cost prohibitive for many people. Migraine medication is useless if the people who need it can’t afford it. We need researchers to explore options that are both effective and affordable. 

Whether you take medication, use herbs, or take a nutritional approach to treating your migraine headache, you are taking proactive steps to make a difference in your life and that is fueled by the desire to live a life that is pain free. Someday there will be a migraine medication that works for everyone and migraines will be a thing of the past. The best weapon migraineurs have against their headaches is knowledge.

Take ownership of your condition, do the research, stay abreast of new technologies, treatments, and medications on the horizon. Don’t be afraid to ask your doctor about new medications or treatment options that you’ve discovered. Also, don’t be afraid to talk to your doctor if a medication he has prescribed to you is not working. Many people try several migraine medications before finding one that works. Doctors who don’t specialize in migraines may not understand many of the nuances of the condition – things that are integral to preventing or shortening your attacks.

Take responsibility for your condition and educate yourself. Keep a migraine diary, do your own research, and learn as much as you can about your migraines so that you know your triggers and when an attack is beginning. Identifying an impending migraine will also help you shorten, minimize, or even prevent it. The earlier you can detect an attack, the more likely it is that your migraine medication will be able to do its job. 

Knowledge is power. Never stop learning. Never stop believing that one day there will be a cure for migraines.

Tips for Searching for Migraine Medication Assistance

Don’t wait until you are down to your last five pills before you start looking for help. Many of the programs for migraine medication assistance listed here require an application and it takes time to get approved.

Start looking for help well before you need it. That way, you will have resources in place when it is time to get your medication. When you are searching for a medication, look up the brand names as well as generic. For instance, Nadolol is not found in the pparx.org database, but its brand name Corgard is found. This information is usually found pretty easily on the internet, or you can ask your doctor or pharmacist. 

When doing location-specific searches, look beyond your immediate location. Sometimes you may need to check larger cities that are nearby if there is nothing in your immediate area. Pay close attention to those resources that are county-specific or that only serve certain cities. You should find the details in the program description or by searching for it on the internet. 

Some states have free or low-cost drug programs. Check with your state’s Medicaid office and your local health department. You can also do an internet search to see if your state sponsors or participates in any programs through community health centers or your area’s Agency on Aging. 

Check your local stores. Pharmacies in many of the chain stores have special programs for low-cost and no-cost prescriptions, including migraine medication assistance. Walmart, Publix, Walgreens, and others have such programs and, in most cases, anyone can qualify for the discounts.

Call your pharmacy to see if they have a program, or call pharmacies in your area. Your doctor and pharmacist may also know of programs that you can check out. It might not be easy asking for help, but if you need the medication, it is better to ask (even if you feel a little embarrassed) than it is to be in pain or be without vital prescriptions.

Prescription Cards

FreeDrugCard.us – This is a free prescription assistance program that is very easy to get. You don’t have to qualify based on income, health, age, nothing. Just get the card and use it. 

Together RX Access Card – This card provides qualifying patients with deep discounts on medication, but there are some restrictions and you have to apply for the assistance. 

Walgreens Prescription Saving Card – This program is only good at Walgreens stores, but there are a number of benefits in addition to discounts on prescriptions. 

Needy Meds – With this free drug discount card you can get as much as an 80% discount on your prescriptions. They also have a pharmacy locator tool on the page.

Company Specific Programs

Merck Patient Assistance Program – If you are taking a medication by Merck, you may be able to get a coupon or qualify for one of their assistance programs. Click here to see the list of drugs manufactured by Merck

MerckHelps.com – This is an easier resource tool for getting affordable Merck medications. 

AstraZeneca Affordability Program – Certain AstraZeneca medications may qualify you for one of their affordability programs. This page also several good resources for help with your AZ meds. 

Pfizer Rx Pathways – Pfizer medications are made more affordable through this patient assistance program.

Johnson & Johnson Patient Assistance Foundation – You do have to meet certain eligibility requirements for these programs, but if you do qualify, you can get migraine medication assistance as well as help with other prescriptions.

Resources for Prescriptions

Partnership for Prescription Assistance – This is a program matching service. When you visit the site, you will see that the page is split. The left side is for prescription assistance. Plug in the name of your medication and they will find programs to help you find migraine medication assistance. 

Rx Assist – This is a great database that lists a number of prescription assistance programs. Just click the button on the right side of the page that is for patients and start your search. 

Rx Hope – Use the navigation panel on the left of the page to search for assistance and access other useful resources. 

Extra Help Program – Some people who receive Medicare may qualify for prescription assistance by meeting three criteria: Medicare recipient, resident of the U.S., and have limited resources.

Resources for Health Care and Other Health Needs

Partnership for Prescription Assistance – This site will help you find low cost and free clinics so that you can get the healthcare that you need. When you visit the site, the clinic portion is on the right side. Plug in your address or zip code and find affordable clinics near you. 

HealthFinder.gov – This is an excellent site with information on prescription assistance programs as well as other good resources for patients. 

PPA Free Clinic Finder – Search for free clinics here. You can have the list emailed to you as well. 

NAFC – National Association of Free and Charitable Clinics – This is another large resource for finding affordable healthcare. 

$4 Generic Discount Drug Program – Find out about prescription programs by various pharmacies that allow you to get certain generic medications for anywhere from $4 to $15. 

Coupons and Rebate Programs – Search for coupons and rebates on prescriptions. 

Patient Savings – Click on the “Patient Savings” tab at the top of the page and you will find a number of valuable resources or prescription migraine medication assistance. 

At Axon, we know that dealing with migraines is hard. We try to make it as easy as possible for our customers to have access to our migraine glasses. They are covered by some insurance or you can usually get them reimbursed through an HSA, FSA, HRA, or other “Cafeteria Plan” Tax-Exempt Health Account. You can read more on our FAQ page under “Are Your Glasses Covered by Insurance?

Of course, you can always give us a call or send us an email with questions about your unique situation. We hope these resources will help and that you have many migraine-free days ahead. We’re in this together.


Gelfand, A. A., & Goadsby, P. J. (2012, April). A Neurologist’s Guide to Acute Migraine Therapy in the Emergency Room. Retrieved August 01, 2017, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3737484/ 

Gilmore, B., & Michael, M. (2011, February 01). Treatment of Acute Migraine Headache. Retrieved August 01, 2017, from http://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0201/p271.html 

Guide to Migraine Relief. (n.d.). Retrieved August 01, 2017, from http://migraineadvocate.org/guide/ MBA, L. D. (2005, June 15).

The Cost of Migraine and Its Treatment. Retrieved August 01, 2017, from http://www.ajmc.com/journals/supplement/2005/2005-06-vol11-n2suppl/jun05-2069ps62-s67/ 

Medication Overuse Headache. (n.d.). Retrieved August 01, 2017, from https://americanmigrainefoundation.org/understanding-migraine/medication-overuse-headache-2/ 

Migraine. (2017, April 26). Retrieved August 01, 2017, from http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/migraine-headache/diagnosis-treatment/dxc-20202471 

Migraine is more than just a bad headache1. (n.d.). Retrieved August 01, 2017, from https://www.scienceofmigraine.com/en/Overview-and-Statistics 

Responsible Use of Opioids. (2015, October 20). Retrieved August 01, 2017, from http://www.headaches.org/2007/11/19/responsible-use-of-opioids/ Henry Hu, MD, MPH, PhD. (1999, April 26).

Burden of Migraine in the United States. Retrieved August 01, 2017, from http://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamainternalmedicine/fullarticle/485012 Migraine Advocate (2017) The

Definitive Guide to Migraine Relief.  Retrieved August 01, 2017, from http://migraineadvocate.org/guide/     Zomig Website:  http://zomig.com/ Imitrex Website:  www.imitrex.com/


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